Each participant’s mean step count increased from baseline to intervention (A-B). On average, steps increased by 25%. Participant 701 increased their steps by just over 4% from an average of 6,387 to 6,647 steps. Participant 702 increased from 5,381 to 7,191 steps for a total of 33.65% increase. The greatest change in steps from baseline to intervention was seen in Participant 703, who increased their steps 37.14% from 4,982 to 6,833.
When comparing the changes in mean step count from intervention to withdrawal (BàA), the results must be considered with the understanding that Participant 702 did not complete his withdrawal phase due to misuse of the FitBit tracker (explained in more detail under “Missing Data”). Thus, total changes reflect only changes seen in Participants 701 and 703. Participant 701’s mean step count decreased by 25.3% from 6,646 to 4,966 during the change from the intervention phase to the withdrawal phase. Participant 703 decreased from 6,833 average steps during the intervention to 3,898 average steps during withdrawal, for a negative 42.9% change. On average, participant step count decreased by 34% from intervention to withdrawal phases.
A final pattern can be seen when looking specifically at trends that occurred during different times of the intervention phase. When observing the intervention phase broken apart into three sections it is possible to demonstrate specific tendencies of the first, middle, and last third of the intervention. Each participant showed a gradual increase in steps during the first part of the intervention, followed by a decline during the middle, and resulting in an increase in steps at the end.
Table 1. Average step counts and percent changes for each participant during each study phase
Mean Step Count
Percent Change in Steps
B v I
I v W
B v W