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Extended Time 
Extended time is offered as an accommodation for students with a variety of learning differences. Additionally, extended time can serve as a pedagogical strategy.   The FAQ offers a compendium of researched-based teaching tips on the uses of extended time.
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Fig. 11. Points earned on an open-ended test tapping conceptual understanding of content from two sections of a course, one taught over an 8-week period and the other taught over a 6-month period, in Budé, Imbos, van de Wiel, and Berger (2011). Error bars represent standard errors (39).

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Why does extended time work? 
Extended time invites us to accelerate learning through what Dunlosky et al call "distributed practice" (see above chart), an effective learning technique that works by "implementing a schedule of practice that spreads out study activities over time" (6).   When they encounter course materials distributed over a wider range of time, students deepen their conceptual learning and retain the material more readily.
How can all students benefit from extended time? 
With extended time, the instructor can offer present the material across time and through many different systems of delivery. Extended time also offers opportunities for distributed practice. Sheryl Burgstahler suggests that "delivering content in redundant ways," a significant feature of disbuted practice, also addresses accommodations for students with diverse needs through elements of Universal Design (UD).
What is an example of the benefits of UD? 
Burgstahler offers this example: "UD benefits students with disabilities but also benefits others. For example, captioning course videos, which provides access to deaf students, is also a benefit to students for whom English is a second language, to some students with learning disabilities, and to those watching the tape in a noisy environment. Delivering content in redundant ways can improve instruction for students with a variety of learning styles and cultural backgrounds. Letting all students have access to your class notes and assignments on a website benefits students with disabilities and everyone else. Planning ahead saves time in the long run."

How does extended time help with persistence?  
Persistence, a habit of mind identified in the Framework for Post-Secondary Success in Academic Writing, also makes use of the concept of extended time. With continuous practice in academic writing and reading, students learn to persist through roadblocks and challenges. The Framework offers a detailed definition of persistence:
Persistence– the ability to sustain interest in and attention to short-and long-term projects.
When is persistence fostered?
Persistence is fostered when writers are encouraged to
  • commit to exploring, in writing, a topic, idea, or demanding task;
  • grapple with challenging ideas, texts, processes, or projects;
  • follow through, over time, to complete tasks, processes, or projects; and
  • consistently take advantage of in-class (peer and instructor responses) and out-of-class (writing or learning center support) opportunities to improve and refine their work.
How can extended time help students in introductory and multilingual writing classes?
As Paul Kei Matsuda suggests, "Both from research and experience, we know that the development of grammatical competence in a second language is a slow and incremental process, and even though the process can be sped up somewhat by instruction, there is no guarantee that students will be able to learn what is being taught" (154).  Matsuda recommends de-emphasizing grammatical features in essay assessment, and address grammar as "formative feedback" (155) in the context of students' writing.  
How else can formative feedback help?
Additionally, Matsuda states that formative feedback offers opportunities for distributed practice. In formative feedback, instructors draw a relationship between the audiences and purposes for writing, and organization of ideas, development of content, and construction of paragraphs and sentences. If feedback concentrates on a single component of the written product, other necessary aspects of the writing process may be excluded. Extended time allows students to focus on the interconnections of the processes and products of writing.



What can writers do with extended time?  

 Extended time, if undertaken with attention, caring, and compassion, can provide some of the following rewards:

  • Daydreaming en route to a point of focus
  • Diving in deeply with unconditional focus
  • Experimenting with a variety of main ideas
  • Writing and erasing and writing (and repeating as often as necessary within our specific contexts and constraints)
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A writer who wishes to lengthen and strengthen his or her writing can: 
  • compose an additional sentence 
  • compose an extended example
  • create a thought-provoking metaphor
  • introduce and analyze a quotation
  • introduce and analyze a photograph or video embedded in his or her writing  
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Works Cited
Bernstein, Susan Naomi. "Extended Time." Beyond the Basics (Bits: Ideas for Teaching Composition). Bedford/St. Martin's, 19 Nov. 2013. Web. 5 Apr. 2014. 
Burgstahler, Sheryl. "Universal Design of Instruction (UDI): Definition, Principles, Guidelines, and Examples." Universal Design of Instruction (UDI): Definition, Principles, Guidelines, and Examples. Ed. DO-IT: University of Washington. University of Washington, 2012. Web. 5 Apr. 2014. 
Council of Writing Program Administrators, National Council of Teachers of English, and National Writing Project. "Framework for Success in Postsecondary Writing." Jan. 2011. PDF file.
Dunlosky, John and et al. "Improving Students’ Learning With Effective Learning Techniques: Promising Directions From Cognitive and Educational Psychology." Psychological Science in the Public Interest 14.1 (2013): 4-58. Print. 
Matsuda, Paul Kei. "Let's Face It: Language Issues and the Writing Program Administrator." WPA: Writing Program     Administration 36.1 (2012): 141-63. Print.

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User-uploaded Content
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"Collaboration" by Jules, Tucson, Arizona, 2 November 2013.

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