Fig. 11. Points earned on an open-ended test tapping conceptual understanding of content from two sections of a course, one taught over an 8-week period and the other taught over a 6-month period, in Budé, Imbos, van de Wiel, and Berger (2011). Error bars represent standard errors (39).
How does extended time help with persistence?
Persistence– the ability to sustain interest in and attention to short-and long-term projects.
- commit to exploring, in writing, a topic, idea, or demanding task;
- grapple with challenging ideas, texts, processes, or projects;
- follow through, over time, to complete tasks, processes, or projects; and
- consistently take advantage of in-class (peer and instructor responses) and out-of-class (writing or learning center support) opportunities to improve and refine their work.
What can writers do with extended time?
Extended time, if undertaken with attention, caring, and compassion, can provide some of the following rewards:
- Daydreaming en route to a point of focus
- Diving in deeply with unconditional focus
- Experimenting with a variety of main ideas
- Writing and erasing and writing (and repeating as often as necessary within our specific contexts and constraints)
A writer who wishes to lengthen and strengthen his or her writing can:
- compose an additional sentence
- compose an extended example
- create a thought-provoking metaphor
- introduce and analyze a quotation
- introduce and analyze a photograph or video embedded in his or her writing
Bernstein, Susan Naomi. "Extended Time." Beyond the Basics (Bits: Ideas for Teaching Composition). Bedford/St. Martin's, 19 Nov. 2013. Web. 5 Apr. 2014.
Burgstahler, Sheryl. "Universal Design of Instruction (UDI): Definition, Principles, Guidelines, and Examples." Universal Design of Instruction (UDI): Definition, Principles, Guidelines, and Examples. Ed. DO-IT: University of Washington. University of Washington, 2012. Web. 5 Apr. 2014.
Council of Writing Program Administrators, National Council of Teachers of English, and National Writing Project. "Framework for Success in Postsecondary Writing." Jan. 2011. PDF file.
Dunlosky, John and et al. "Improving Students’ Learning With Effective Learning Techniques: Promising Directions From Cognitive and Educational Psychology." Psychological Science in the Public Interest 14.1 (2013): 4-58. Print.
Matsuda, Paul Kei. "Let's Face It: Language Issues and the Writing Program Administrator." WPA: Writing Program Administration 36.1 (2012): 141-63. Print.
"Collaboration" by Jules, Tucson, Arizona, 2 November 2013.